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Drip Irrigation


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Defination:

It is method of application of water to the plant in a controlled way through water dispresing device at a designed rate just at zero discharge pressure, directly above the root zone under the canopy of plant.

Advantages

  • Better Use of Agricultural inputs(Seeds, Fertilizer, Pesticides, Labour etc.) Reduces Losses & increase efficiency.

  • Water saving: Because of highwater distribution efficiency and direct application at the root zone, and very low rate of application there is considerable savinginwater.

  • Labour saving: This is the second most imported advantage of drip irrigation system. In fact even at a few places where water is not limiting factor, farmers are adopting drip irrigation.

  • Land saving & use marginal land : Like water land is a nature limiting factor, the wastage of land in making supply and field channels is eliminated in drip irrigation system.

  • Saving in Pesticides: Because of weed free and dry crop condition the pesticides are saved by increased spraying interval and reduced volume of spray solution it is also possible to apply certain systemic persicides or fumigation through Drip Irrigation System.

  • Time Saving: Because of better soil water root micro climate condition and higher soil temperture the growth rate of crop is high and uniform this results into earlmaturity of the crop, thus saving in time which may on the other hand enable farmer to take advantage of early high market prices particularly in case of horticultural crops.

  • Use of Marginal Water: It is now proven fact water of poor quality with which normal irrigation practice can not be used for crop grop growing can be put to profitable use through drip irrigation system in israel Brakish as well as sewagwe water are being used on large acreage for cotton and other crops.

  • Energy Saving: Although the energy requirement as such to operate drip irrigation is high per unit quantity of water the total water required for given area to produce given quantity of crop is considerably less thus resulting in to reduction in net energy requirement.

  • Better Production & improved quality: With all the advantages discussed above there is considerble improvement in vield and quality of the produce.These dirctly add to the income of the farmer.

  • Improved Management Capacity: In Addition to all the advantages enumerated above the most striking effect farmers who have adopted drip irrigation have experienced is the great improvement in their overall management efficiency.

Principal of Drip Irrigation System

  • Water Supply: water is supplied to all plants uniformly but it is distributed asymmetrically through the area with emphasis on supply of the area of roots keeping the area between rows of plants dry Unirrigated strips between rows enable the farmers to work in the field at any time independant of irrigation schedule.

  • Movement of Water into Soil(by Capillary action):Water is supplied to the soil through dripperswith each dripper serving as a point of source and hence the movement of water inthe soil is in all direction by capillary action of soil with very little influence of gravitation.

  • Aeration of the soil:due to caplliary movement of water in the soil no air is forced out of soil .Pores of the soil remain dry and aerated. The moisture level os the pores remains just above the field capacity. This help s the proper growth of plant root throughout the season without any interruption during or after irrigation.

  • Root SystemUnder the drip irrigation, the root system grow larger and dense than any other type of irrigation. The development of root system under the drip irrigation is asymmetrical. the roots would be closer to the dripper

  • Nutrition:Drip irrigation System is effective for plant nutrition.The rapid and efficient absorption of nutrition through the root is the result of great density of root in the area of dripper and approriate areation around the root due to availability of heat energy and oxygen.